Original Optimized Position A Design Design Virtual Case depth 10 mm 10 mm at HRC 40 Prototyping is Total case 10.5 mm 10.7 mm depth Both cases: 170 kW, 1 kHz the use of Scan speed 9.5 10.7 mm/sec mm/sec computer Original Optimized H Position B R Design Design models to Case depth C 13.5 mm 11 mm at HRC 40 develop and test Total case A 15 mm 11.75 mm depth a process or Dwell time 10 sec 8 sec component Position C Original Optimized Design Design without having to Case depth 4.5 mm 6.5 mm at HRC 40 physically build Total case depth 5.25 mm 7.5 mm B or run it Dwell time 10 sec 8 sec C Advantages of Virtual Prototyping Parts are not required to run tests Models can be exchanged between heat treating process and parts developers Simulation does not take machine time Fewer coil modifications Fewer trials required with a given coil Narrower development time window Reduced time to adapt to part changes Ability to predict the process and product reliability and variability Leaves an excellent record for out of control condition in conjunction with PPAP Steps in Virtual Prototyping Preliminary analysis of the specifications and available equipment. Preliminary process design using computer simulation Induction coil and process design using computer simulation Steps ctd. Coil and/or machine engineering using CAD Coil and machine manufacturing Experimental tests Final modification if required Industrial implementation Case Story Wheel Hub HardeningProblem Short coil life (8,000 13,000 pieces) resulting in: Machine downtime Unacceptable personnel time due to Typical process of induction heating of wheel hubs extended set-up Note Tooling Costs Not a Problem Due to Scrap parts Manufacturer Warranty Virtual Prototyping Selected Traditional means were not able to find a solution Due to unplanned downtime, production was always behind and tests were difficult to schedule Besides hardening, other stations were working adequately Production line was already existing, so not all steps are required Analysis of Problem and Equipment Copper Cracking Under Laminations due to Overheating Lamination Degradation Already Had Very High Water Pressure and Flow Rate Existing machine 150 kW, 15 kHz Hardening Induction Coil and Process Design 2D EM + Thermal FEA to determine coil required to produce required heat pattern in specified time with current machine 2D EM + Thermal FEA to ensure all coil components are kept cool enough to survive for a sufficient period of time (>50,000 pieces) Update of coil design as required to find best combination of heat pattern and coil copper temperatures Model of Part Temperature & HardnessTemperature distribution in part with Predicted hardness patternnew coil design Flux 2D program Model of Inductor Temperature Color Shade ResultsTwo cooling paths for Quantity : Temperature Deg. Celsiusbetter heat extraction Time (s.) : 2.5 Phase (Deg): 0 Scale / Colorfrom over-heated 33.00854 / 36.81434 36.81434 / 40.62014copper regions 40.62014 / 44.42594 44.42594 / 48.23174 48.23174 / 52.03753 52.03753 / 55.84333Heat transfer coefficient 55.84333 / 59.64913 59.64913 / 63.45493applied, calculated from 63.45493 / 67.26073 67.26073 / 71.06651water flow rate 71.06651 / 74.87231 74.87231 / 78.67812 78.67812 / 82.48392 82.48392 / 86.2897Results: Max copper 86.2897 / 90.0955temperature 170,000 hitswithout coilcopper failure orconcentratordegradation. New induction coil after 170,000 heating cycles Virtual Prototyping for Machine Design In this case, this problem could have been avoided if Virtual Prototyping were used before the machine was ever built Also, there was significant opportunity to either increase productivity, or reduce the number of stations on the machine to reduce cost Current Machine Layout 300 parts per hour production (12 s / station) 2 Shifts of Production to Meet Demand 4 Stations Harden & Pre-Quench Quench Completion Temper Final Cool Heat Treat Machine In-Line with Final Machining Wheres the BottleneckInduction Heat Treat Machining Operation Can we reduce cycle time Can we reduce the with 4 stations? number of stations to If yes, how much? reduce machine cost?